Valley & Mountains
The Route 340 Corridor:
South of Front Royal
The following sites are marked by Civil War Trails interpretation unless otherwise noted. Sites are listed north to south.
Battle of Milford (Overall), Trails sign located at US 340 and Overall Road, Overall VA Road map – Markers describe the battles here and near here Sept 22–24, 1864. Confederate cavalry turned back Union cavalry trying to get around Gen. Jubal Early’s flank (then at Fisher’s Hill on the other side of the Massanutten Mountain). The action here allowed Early to retreat following his defeat at Fisher’s Hill. The Confederates again used this natural choke point to delay Union cavalry following the battle of Cedar Creek in October 1864.
White House Bridge, Trails sign on Route 211 about 3 miles west of Luray Road map – Stonewall Jackson's cavalry chief, Turner Ashby, burned a bridge here June 2, 1862, to delay Federal pursuit. The battles of Cross Keys and Port Republic were fought a week later.
New Market Gap, Trails sign on Route 211 in National Forest parking lot, 4 miles west of White House Bridge site – Near here on Nov. 23, 1862, Jackson announced that his Army of the Valley had become the Second Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia and soon would join Robert E. Lee's troops on east of the Blue Ridge.
Church at Pass Run, Trails sign about 3.5 miles east of Route 340, just off the westbound lanes of Route 211 at Red Church Road Road map – Confederate units camped here following the retreat from Gettysburg.
Yager's Mill, Trails sign in “park-and-ride” lot just south of the Route 211 intersection Road map – In September 1864 Union cavalry attempted to move south on the east side of Massanutten Mountain while the main body of Federal troops advanced to Fisher's Hill on the Valley pike to the west. Union Gen. Philip Sheridan wanted to cut off any retreat by defeated Confederates. The advance in this area was stalled by Confederates Sept. 22 and the Southern withdrawal from Fisher's Hill was not disrupted.
The Chapman-Ruffner House, 440 Ruffner House Road, Luray VA 22835 Road map – This 1739 house was home to the colorful "Fighting Chapmans," who served with John S. Mosby's Rangers during the war.
Willow Grove Mill, Trails sign on Stoneyman Road just east of US 340 in Luray VA 22835 Road map – The mill here and several other buildings in the area were burned in early October 1864 by Union troopers. The action was part of "The Burning" of the Valley ordered by Union Gen. Philip Sheridan.
Grave's Chapel, Trails sign on Route 689 just east of Business Route 340 in Stanley VA 22851 Road map – In late November 1862, Jackson led 32,000 troops across the South Fork of the Shenandoah River en route to Fisher's Gap and the Army of Northern Virginia. This would be the last time Jackson would see the Valley. He died following the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863.
Catherine Furnace, Trails sign at the furnace remains in the George Washington National Forest. Take gravel road near the intersection of Cub Run Road and Newport Road, Stanley VA 22851; then travel 0.4 miles to the site Road map – Remains here of a once-busy iron furnace, one of three operating in the area during the war. Wagons transported pig iron, produced here, to Richmond's Tredegar Iron Works. The furnace here produced solid cannon shot.
Red Bridge and Somerville Heights, Trails signs at boat landing about a mile east of Route 340 on Grove Hill River Road, just south of the South Fork, Shenandoah River Road map – In late April 1862, Jackson ordered the bridges burned here to keep Federal troops at bay while he planned the next phase of his campaign. Only one bridge was burned, leading to a rift between Jackson and his cavalry chief Turner Ashby. In early May, while Jackson feinted east, Union soldiers stumbled into Confederate infantry here, which resulted in a brief but bloody battle.
Shenandoah Iron Works, Marker on Maryland Avenue, a block west of US 340 in Shenandoah VA 22849 Road map – Iron furnace here consumed an acre of wood per day in peak use as it produced the raw materials for Confederate guns. Although thousands of soldiers, Union and Confederate, marched past this site, the furnace was never destroyed.
Shields Advance and Retreat, Trails sign just east of US 340 at Moose Bottom Road in small park just north of Naked Creek south of Shenandoah VA 22849 Road map – Union Gen. James Shields crossed Naked Creek here June 7, 1862, in pursuit of Jackson's army, then camped at Port Republic. After losing to Jackson two days later, Shields' men halted here during the retreat.
Jackson's Headquarters, Elkton (Conrad's Store during the war), Trails sign at Miller–Kite House, 310 E Rockingham St, Elkton VA 22827 Road map – Stonewall Jackson made this home his headquarters April 19-20, 1862, while planning his spring campaign. The house was built in 1827. Jackson's sparse living quarters were on the first floor. House open Memorial Day–Labor Day on Sunday 1–5 pm. Donations welcome. 540-298-1717.
Port Republic (The Coaling) – Walking tour of “The Coaling” begins near the intersection of Route 340 and Ore Bank Road (Route 708) north of Port Republic Road map .
For more on the Port Republic and Cross Keys battlefields, see "Up the Valley."
Civil War Tourism Attraction, Trails sign at 5 Grand Caverns Drive, Grottoes VA 24441 Road map – Camped nearby, Confederate soldiers made candlelight tours of Weyers Cave (now Grand Caverns) following their victories at Cross Keys/Port Republic in June 1862. At least some Union soldiers visited the cave more than two years later following the Third Battle of Winchester. More than 230 Civil War-era signatures have been identified on the cave walls.
Battle of Piedmont, Trails sign on Route 608 north of New Hope Road map – Sharp fighting north of here June 5, 1864, cleared the road to Staunton, Lexington and Lynchburg for new Union Valley commander David Hunter. Confederate Gen. William "Grumble" Jones, fighting his outnumbered and ultimately defeated troops, was killed here.
Plumb House, Waynesboro – See Route 250 Corridor.